Tod Hamilton

Associate Professor of Sociology
128 Wallace Hall

Ph.D. Sociology
University of Texas, Austin, 2010


Tod G. Hamilton is the Director of the Computing Core at OPR and Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology. His research interests are in the field of demography, with an emphasis on immigration and health. His current research evaluates the relative importance of culture and selective migration in explaining differential patterns of stratification between U.S.-born and foreign-born individuals in the United States. Hamilton also explores the degree of health selection among contemporary immigrants to the United States as well as the role that social, economic, and health conditions in immigrants’ countries of origin play in explaining variation in their post-migration health in the United States.

How diverse is the black population in the United States?

Between 1960 and 2005, the number of black immigrants in the United States increased from approximately 125,000 to approximately 2,815,000. Relative to the size of the black immigrant population in the United States, this group has also contributed disproportionately to the growth of the entire black population in recent decades. If these trends continue, black immigrants and their descendants will play a significant role in determining perceptions of social and economic well-being of the country’s black population in future decades.

My current work investigates how these demographic changes impact racial disparities in health and labor market outcomes among individuals who reside in the United States. I’m currently involved in two strands of research. The first evaluates the factors that generate labor market differences between black immigrants and black natives. The second strand of research explores the degree of health selection among black immigrants as well as the role that conditions in black immigrants’ countries of origin play in explaining variation in their post-migration health in the United States.

Selected Publications

Hamilton, T. G., & Hagos, R. (2021). Race and the healthy immigrant effect. . Public Policy & Aging Report., doi:

Hamilton, T. G. (2020). Black immigrants and the changing portrait of black identity. Annual Review of Sociology, 46, 295. doi:

Green Tiffany, & Hamilton, T. G. (2019). Intergenerational differences in smoking among west Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African blacks in the united states. Demographic Research, 41, 713-752.

Green, T., & Hamilton, T. (2019). Maternal educational attainment and infant mortality in the united states: Does the gradient vary by race/ethnicity and nativity?
. Demographic Research, 41, 713. doi:doi:10.2307/26850665

Hamilton, T. G. (2019). Immigration and the remaking of black America. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Hamilton, T. G., Easley, J. A., & Dixon, A. R. (2018). Black immigration, occupational niches, and earnings disparities between U.S.-born and foreign-born blacks in the united states. RSF: Journal of the Social Sciences, 4(1), 60.

Jackson, J. S., Hamilton, T. G., Ifatunji, M. A., Lacey, K. K., Lee, H. E., & Rafferty, J. A. (2018). Using analytic domains within the black population to understand disparities in population health
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. doi:

Montez, J., Zhang, W., Zajacova, A., & Hamilton, T. (2018). Does college major matter for women's and men's health in midlife? examining the horizontal dimensions of educational attainment. Soc.Sci.Med., (198), 130. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.01.005

Hamilton, T. G., & Green, T. (2017). From the west indies to Africa: A universal generational decline in health among Blacks in the united states. Social Science Research, December 16 doi:
PMID: 29793684

Rosenblum, A., Darity, W., Harris, A. L., & Hamilton, T. G. (2016). Looking through the shades: The effect of skin color on earnings by region of birth and race for immigrants to the united states. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 2(1), 87-105. doi:10.1177/2332649215600718
Requested update Tod H 8/3/17

Hamilton, T. G. (2015). The healthy immigrant (migrant) effect: In search of a better native-born comparison group. Social Science Research, 54, 353-365.

Hamilton, T. G., Palermo, T., & Green, T. L. (2015). Health assimilation among Hispanic immigrants in the united states: The impact of ignoring arrival-cohort effects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 56(4), 460-477.

Hamilton, T. G. (2014). Selection, language heritage, and the earnings trajectories of black immigrants in the united states. Demography, 51(3), 975-1002.

Hamilton, T. G. (2014). Do country-of-origin characteristics help explain variation in health among black immigrants in the united states? Social Science Quarterly, 95(3), 817-834.
Requested update - Tod H. 8/3/17

Green, T. L., & Hamilton, T. G. (2013). Beyond black and white: Color and mortality in post-reconstruction era North Carolina. Explorations in Economic History, 50(1), 148-159. doi:10.1016/j.eeh.2012.06.002

Hamilton, T. G. (2013). Black immigration. Encyclopedia of race and racism, 2d ed.; 4v (pp. 263-267). Portland: Book News, Inc.
Encyclopedia Entry

Hamilton, T. G., & Kawachi, I. (2013). Changes in income inequality and the health of immigrants. Social Science & Medicine, 80, 57. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.10.002

Hamilton, T. G. (2012). Arrival cohort, assimilation, and the earnings of Caribbean women in the united states. The Review of Black Political Economy, 39(4), 445-460. doi:10.1007/s12114-012-9133-7
Before Princeton

Hamilton, T. G., & Hummer, R. A. (2011). Immigration and the health of U.S. black adults: Does country of origin matter? Social Science & Medicine (1982), 73(10), 1551-1560. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.07.026